Textbook of Fluid Mechanics

by Gupta, S K

ISBN: 9789354619328
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Imprint : Daya Publishing House
Year : 2024
Price : Rs. 15095.00
Biblio : xii+418p., tabls., figs., col., ind 25 cm

Author Profile

Dr. S.K. Gupta, Born (1949), is INAE Distinguished Visiting Professor, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal and an independent Research Engineer with specialization in Soil and Water Resources Engineering and Civil Engineering. He obtained B. Tech (Agril. Engg.) from the Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana, in 1970 and Master of Agricultural Engineering from the same University in 1976. He obtained Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from the Jawahar Lal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India in 1984. Dr. Gupta is Fellow of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Indian National Academy of Engineering and Indian Society of Agricultural Engineering. Since his joining CSSRI in 1971, besides holding scientific positions, he has been Head, Division of Drainage and Water Management, Head, Indo-Dutch Network Project, Head, Division of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering and Project Coordinator (AICRP on Management of Salt Affected Soils and Use of Saline Water in Agriculture). After superannuation, Dr. Gupta worked as Emeritus Scientist (ICAR) and INAE Distinguished Professor at the same institute. Dr. Gupta has been engaged in conducting researches in surface and subsurface drainage for land reclamation, irrigation water management, hydrology of salt affected soils, leaching and use of saline water in agriculture. He has published more than 150 research papers in high impact factor journals and published 15 books. Dr. Gupta has been consultant to WAPCOS-Louis Berger, MoWR, MoRD, UP-Dutch Tube Well Project, Action Aid International, Synergics Hydro India-Oromia Water Works Enterprise, Ethiopia and others. He has been bestowed with Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Award by ICAR. Besides he is recipient of several awards from NAAS, ISAE, IE (India), CBIP and MoWR among other organizations. He is the Chief Editor of Journal of Water Management of the Indian Society of Water Management.

About The Book

Fluid mechanics is an important subject in conventional and non-conventional engineering fields. Listing of engineering disciplines having applications of fluid mechanics may be a daunting task yet the immediate ones that come to mind are: civil, mechanical, electrical, agriculture, dairy, structural, industrial, navel architecture, space and biomedical engineering. While conventional engineers may be interested in its applications to solve industrial problems, space engineers may be interested in designing space shuttles having low resistance, high speeds and high “lift” force. The focus of this book is elements of fluid mechanics having relevance to undergraduate students of agricultural, dairy and civil engineering. The content of this book are as per the Dean’s Committee recommendations for Agriculture and Dairy engineering. Additional chapters have been included to cover the course content taught to civil engineering students of the affiliating universities. The book is divided into three sections with well-defined thirteen chapters. These include: Introduction to fluid mechanics, Pressure and pressure measurement, Archimedes law and stability of floating bodies, Fluid kinematics and visualization, Fluid dynamics: mass and energy conservation, Flow measurement: weirs notches and orifices, Open channel flow, Pipe flow, Hydraulic losses in pipes, Dimensional analysis and similitude, Introduction to fluid machinery, Reciprocating pumps and Hydrodynamic pumps. The book is in simple and easy to understand english. The book is highly illustrated. Both theory and objective type questions have been included for the benefit of the students. The author believes that the book should prove to be a valuable textbook to students and staff of engineering colleges across disciplines. It can prove to be a valuable academic asset for libraries of colleges and universities world wide.

Table of Contents

Preface v 1. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1 Introduction - Fluid Statics - Fluid Kinematics/Dynamics - Fluid Continuum - Brief History - Why Study Fluid Mechanics – Fluids - Fluid Characteristics - Density - Specific Gravity or Relative Density - Specific Weight - Specific Volume – Viscosity - Newton Law of Viscosity - Vapour Pressure - Surface Tension - Factors Affecting Surface Tension - Cohesion and Adhesion – Capillarity – Compressibility - Temperature - Dimensions and Units - Systems of Units - Questions (Theory) FLUID STATICS 2. Pressure and Pressure Measurement 29 What is Pressure - Hydrostatic Law – Proof - Gauge Pressure and Absolute Pressure - Gauge Pressure - Absolute Pressure - Pascal’s Law – Theorem - Applications - Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Surfaces - Plane Horizontal Surface - Plane Vertical Surface - Plane Inclined Surface - Curved Surfaces - Pressure Measurement – Manometers - Simple Manometer: Piezometer - U-tube Manometer - Differential Manometers - Well Type Manometers - Micro- Manometer - Multi-Fluid Manometer - Manometric Fluid - Simple Mercury Barometer - Aneroid Barometer - Electromechanical Gauges - Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge - Diaphragm Gauges - Pressure Transducers - Pressure Sensitive Paints (PSP) - Electrical Resistance Gauges - Vacuum Gauges- Questions (Theory) x 3. Archimedes Law and Stability of Floating Bodies 69 Buoyancy - Archimedes Law - Fully Submerged Body - Floating Body - Fundamentals of Stability - Center of Gravity - Center of Buoyancy – Metacenter – Stability - Submerged Bodies - Metacentric Height - Questions (Theory) FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID FLOW 4. Fluid Kinematics and Visualization 87 What is Fluid Kinematics - Method of Describing Fluid Motion -Lagrangian Description - Eulerian Description - Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Description -The Material Derivative - Flow Visualization- Streamline - Streak Line - Path Line - Time Line - Surface Flow Visualization - Particle Tracer Methods - Optical Methods - Analytical Methods - Texture Advection Methods - Plots of Data - Kinematic Description in Fluid Mechanics - Reynolds Transport Theorem - Types of Flow - Steady and Unsteady Flow - Uniform and Non-Uniform Flow - Steady Uniform and Steady Non-Uniform Flow - Unsteady Uniform and Unsteady Non- Uniform Flow - Compressible and Incompressible Flow - Pressurized and Gravity Flow - One, Two and Three Dimensional Flows - Rotational and Irrotational Flows - Laminar Flow - Turbulent Flow - Transition Flow - Reynolds Number - Stream Function - Flow Nets - Structure of a Flow Net - Construction of a Flow Net – Calculations - Questions (Theory) 5. Fluid Dynamics: Mass and Energy Conservation 113 Continuity Equation - Continuity Equation: Differential Form - Continuity Equation: Integral Form - Continuity Equation: Cylindrical Polar Coordinates - Bernoulli’s Theorem – Derivation - Euler and Bernoulli Equations - Stagnation Pressure - Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines - Principle of a Hydraulic Siphon - Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation - Pitot Tube - Pitot-Static Tube - Venturi Meter - Discharge Formula - Volume Flow Rate - Venturi Meter Fitted in a Slanting Pipe - Flow Through Nozzle – Power – Rotameter – Construction - Principle of Working - Types of Rotameters - Questions (Theory) 6. Flow Measurement: Weirs Notches and Orifices 145 Introduction - Irrigation Sector and Flow Measurement - Unit of Measurement - Methods of Discharge Measurement – Notch – Weir – Classification - Derivation of Discharge Equations - Rectangular Weir - Coefficient of Discharge for Rectangular Weir Francis Formula - Submerged Weir - V-Notch - Trapezoidal Weir –Compound Weirs- Ogee Weir- Orifice - Hydraulic Coefficients - Vena Contracta - Discharge Equation - Partially Submerged Orifice - Time of Emptying a Circular Horizontal Tank – Mouthpieces - External Cylindrical Mouthpiece - Internal Cylindrical Mouthpiece - Convergent Mouthpiece - Convergent- Divergent Mouthpiece - Water Level Gauges - Non-Self-Registering Gauges - The Float Gauges - Transparent Circular Gauges - Long Transparent Gauges - The xi Hook and Point Gauges - Monitoring Groundwater Levels - Self-Registering Gauges - Questions (Theory) 7. Open Channel Flow 189 Types of Open Channels - Prismatic and Non-Prismatic Channels - Rigid and Mobile Boundary Channels - Unlined and Lined Channels - Open Channel Geometry - Hydraulic Parameters of Open Channels - Economical or Best Hydraulic Sections - Rectangular - Trapezoidal - Circular - N-Sided Channel - Triangular - State of the Flow - Effect of Viscosity - Effect of Gravity – Chézy’s Equation - Assessment of Chézy Coefficient - Manning’s Equation - Non-Uniform Flow - Specific Energy - Critical Energy and Critical Depth - Discharge-Depth Curve - Momentum Equation - Momentum Equation in Open Channel Flow - Specific Force - Hydraulic Jump - Basic Characteristics of Hydraulic Jump - Energy Dissipation due to Hydraulic Jump - Jump Efficiency - Relative Loss of Energy - Questions (Theory) 8. Pipe Flow 223 Laminar and Turbulent Flow - Entrance Region Flow - Poiseuille and Couette Flow - Flow Through Parallel Plates - Application of Navier-Stokes Equations - Simple Poiseuille Flow: Flow Between Two Parallel Stationary Plates - Shell Balance Approach (Conservation of Momentum) - Couette Flow - Laminar Flow in Pipes - Loss of Pressure Head - Pipe Capacity: Manning’s Equation - Questions (Theory) 9. Hydraulic Losses in Pipe Flow 241 Introduction - Major and Minor Head Losses - Estimation of Major Head Losses - Darcy-Weisbach Formula - Assessment of Friction Coefficient - Hazen-Williams Equation - Minor Head Losses - Head Loss at the Entrance of Pipe - Head Loss at Exit of Pipe - Head Loss due to Gradual Enlargement or Contraction - Head Loss due to Sudden Contraction in Pipe - Losses due to Sudden Enlargement - Head Loss due to Obstruction in Pipe - Head Loss due to Pipe Fittings - Head Loss in the System - Flow through Piping Systems - Pipes in Series and Parallel - Questions (Theory) 10. Dimensional Analysis and Similitude 267 Dimensional Analysis - Dimensional Homogeneity - Consistency of the Equation - Non-Dimensionlization of Equations - Steps for Dimensional Analysis - Rayleigh’s Method - Buckingham Π Theorem - Determination of Π Terms - Dimensionless Numbers in Fluid Dynamics - Dimensionless Numbers - Hydraulic Similitude - Prototype and Model - Kinds of Models - Importance of Model Studies – Similitude - Geometric Similarity - Kinematic Similarity - Dynamic Similarity - Reynolds/ Froude Model Laws - Modelling and Scaling Laws - Questions (Theory) xii TURBO-MACHINES 11. Introduction to Fluid Machines 291 What is Fluid Machine - Turbines - Classification of Turbines - The Pelton Wheel - Francis Turbine - Kaplan Turbine - Power Transmission through Pipes - Maximum Transmission of Power - Maximum Efficiency of Power Transmission – Pumps - Questions (Theory) 12. Recriprocating Pumps 307 What is a Pump - Need to Study Pumps - Basic Working Principle - Classification of Pumps - Description of Pumps - Positive-Displacement Pumps - Non-Positive Displacement Pumps - Reciprocating Pumps - Piston Pumps - Axial and Radial Piston Pumps - Axial Piston Pump - Radial Piston Pump - Plunger Pump - Diaphragm Pump - Pneumatic Pump - Peristaltic Pump - Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps - Gear Pump - Gerotor Pump - Lobe Pump - Vane Pump - Screw Pump - Theory of Reciprocating Pumps - Capacity of Single Acting Pump - Capacity of Double Acting Pump - Power Requirement - Performance of the Pump - Net Positive Suction Head - Air Vessel - Affinity Laws- Selection of Hydraulic Pumps - Questions (Theory) 13. Hydrodynamic Pumps 339 Kinds of Pumps - Radial Flow Pumps - Axial Flow or Propeller Pumps - Mixed Flow Pumps - Advantages and Disadvantages - Other Classifications - Components of a Pump - Shaft and Impeller – Casing - Suction and Delivery Pipes - Foot Valve with a Screen - Reflux Valve - Self-Priming Device - Working Principle of Centrifugal Pumps - Terminology - Pump Performance or Characteristic Curves - Matching a Pump to a Pipeline - Affinity Laws - Effect of Impeller Speed - Effect of Impeller Diameter - Pump Efficiency - Cost of Pumping - Pumps in Series and Parallel - Priming of Centrifugal Pumps - Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) - Water Hammer – Cavitation - Turbine Pump - Submersible Pump - Questions (Theory) Objective Type Questions and Answers 373 Annexure 1: Useful Information and Conversion Factors 405 References 409 Index 413