Basics of Soil and Water Conservation: Including Surveying and Irrigation

by Nikam, Sandip P.

ISBN: 9789354612206
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Imprint : Daya Publishing House
Year : 2022
Price : Rs. 8495.00
Biblio : xii+230p., tabls., figs., ind 25

Author Profile

Dr. Sandip P. Nikam holds a bachelor's degree in Agricultural Engineering and master's degree in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering from Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri. Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur (RJ) awarded him Ph.D. Degree with Gold Medal. He was worked with various national and internationally reputed NGOs engaged in Natural Resource Management (NRM), Soil and Water Conservation, Watershed Management and Climate Change. He has a special interest in soil and water conservation, watershed development and irrigation. Presently, he is working as an Associate Professor of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering at Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri (Dist. Ahmednagar, MS). He has more than 20 years of experience in NRM, Watershed Management, teaching (UG and PG) and extension activities. He delivered good number of lectures as a resource person on watershed management (soil and water conservation).

About The Book

This book is intended to serve as a textbook for everyone interested in soil and water conservation, surveying and irrigation. It covers most of the topics related to the surveying and levelling, soil and water conservation measures, erosion and watershed management. The main topics which are included in the book are: introduction to surveying and levelling, instruments to be used and methods of surveying, contours and computation of area of field, runoff and its determination, land degradation and types of erosion, LUCC and soil and water conservation measures, water harvesting , watershed and watershed management, irrigation, irrigation pumps and water measuring devices. This book is specially designed as per the syllabus of the recent 5th Dean's Committee report of ICAR for the subject of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering. The materials on the subject are set forth in such manner and order, as to enable UG student better understanding. Professional training institutes like NGOs, KVKs, polytechnics, rural institutes etc dealing in soil and water conservation, surveying, on-farm water management would find this textbook of immense value.

Table of Contents

Preface v 1. Introduction to Surveying 1 1.1 General Definition of Surveying 1.2 Methods of Surveying 1.3 Types of Surveying or Classification of Surveying 1.4 Objects of Surveying 1.5 Uses of Surveying 1.6 Principles of Surveying 2. Instruments Used in Surveying 7 2.1 Instruments Used for Measuring Distance 2.2 Instruments Used for Marking Stations 2.3 Instruments Used for Setting out Right Angles 2.4 Method of Measuring Distance 2.5 Errors in Chaining 2.6 Ranging Out Survey Line 2.7 Measurements of Areas 3. Chain Survey 25 3.1 Terminology Used in Chain Survey 3.2 Procedure in Chain Survey 3.3 Plotting 3.4 Calculation of Area of a Field 4. Cross Staff Survey 29 4.1 Principle 4.2 Instruments/Material Required 4.3 Procedure 4.4 Calculations of Field Area 5. Plane Table Surveying 31 5.1 Merits of PT Survey 5.2 Demerits of PT Survey 5.3 Instruments 5.4 Setting up Plane Table 5.5 Methods of Plane Tabling 5.6 Procedure for Radiation Plane Table Survey 6. Introduction to Levelling 37 6.1 Commonly Used Terms in Levelling 6.2 The Level 6.3 Tripod 6.4 Levelling Staff 6.5 Setting the Level 6.6 Adjustment of the Level 6.7 Booking Staff Readings in Field Book 6.8 Classification of Levelling 6.9 Steps in Levelling 6.10 Principle/Types of Levelling 6.11 Methods of Determination of the Reduced Level of Pointfrom the Staff Reading 7. Contour 55 7.1 Contouring 7.2 Contour Interval 7.3 Characteristics of Contour Lines 7.4 Use of Contours 7.5 Grid Survey Method or Survey for Contour Map 8. Computation of Area 61 8.1 Computation from Field Notes 8.2 Computation of Area from Previously Plotted Plan 8.3 Graphical Method 8.4 Comparison of Rules 8.5 Instrumental Method (Planimeter) 9. Rainfall and Runoff Determination 69 9.1 Forms of Precipitation 9.2 Rainfall Pattern in India 9.3 Rainfall Parameters 9.4 Hydrological Cycle 9.6 Runoff 9.7 Types of Runoff 9.8 Factors Affecting Runoff 9.9 Computation of Runoff 10. Grassed Waterways 89 10.1 Shape 10.2 Geometric Elements of an Open Channel 10.3 Channel Grades 10.4 Channel Dimensions 10.5 Design 11. Land Degradation 95 11.1 Factors Responsible for Soil Degradation and Soil Loss 11.2 Causes and Ill Effects of Soil Erosion 11.3 Erosion 11.4 Types of Erosion 11.5 Water Erosion 11.6 Gully Development 11.7 Factors Responsible for Erosion 11.8 Factors Affecting Water Erosion 11.9 Wind Erosion 11.10 Wind Erosion Problem Areas 11.11 Mechanics of Wind Erosion 11.12 Sand Dunes 11.13 Determination of Soil Loss (USLE) 11.14 Measurement of Soil Loss (Multi slot divisor) 12. Land Use Capability Classification 115 12.1 Factors Influencing the Land Capability Classification 12.2 Land Capability Classes 12.3 Determination of the Land Capability Class 13. Measures for Soil and Water Conservation 123 13.1 Objectives of Soil and Water Conservation 13.2 Different Soil and Water Conservation Measure or Treatments 13.3 Agronomical Measures 13.4 Engineering Measures 13.5 Measure Adopted on Non-cultivable Land 13.6 Soil and Water Conservation Measure for Drainage Line 14. Water Harvesting and its Types 155 14.1 Classification of Water Harvesting Techniques 14.2 Roof Water Harvesting 14.3 Runoff Harvesting 14.4 Dugout Ponds 14.5 Embankment Type Reservoirs 14.6 Flood Water Harvesting 15. Watershed and Watershed Management 163 15.1 Components of Watershed Development 15.2 Watershed 15.3 Delineation Procedure of Watershed 15.4 Basic Information Regarding Maps 15.5 Important Maps Used in the Planning of Watershed 15.6 Classification of Watershed 15.7 Function of Watershed 15.8 Morphological Characteristics of Watershed 15.9 Causes of Watershed Deterioration 15.10 Effects of Watershed Deterioration 15.11 Watershed Management/Development 15.12 Objective of Watershed Management 15.13 Phases or Steps of Watershed Development/Management 16. Water Measuring Devices 175 16.1 Units of Measurement of Water 16.2 Measuring Devices 16.3 Weir 16.4 General Requirements for the Setting and Operation of Weirs 16.5 Orifices 16.6 Parshall Flumes 17. Irrigation 187 17.1 Benefits of Irrigation 17.2 Disadvantages of Irrigation 17.3 Development of Microirrigation Systems 17.4 Drip Irrigation 17.5 Advantages of Micro-irrigation 17.6 Disadvantages of Drip Irrigation System 17.7 Drip Irrigation Components 17.8 Operation and Maintenance of Drip Irrigation System 17.9 Design of Drip Irrigation System 17.10 Sprinkler Irrigation 17.11 Adaptability of Sprinkler Irrigation 17.12 Advantages of Sprinkler Irrigation 17.13 Components of Sprinkler Irrigation System 17.14 Working of Sprinkler Irrigation System 17.15 Constraints in Application of Sprinkler Irrigation System 17.16 Trouble Shooting of Sprinkler System 17.17 Operation and Maintenance of Sprinkler System 18. Irrigation Pumps 205 18.1 Terminology Involved in the Operation of Pump 18.2 Classification of Pumps 18.3 Centrifugal Pumps 18.4 Advantages of Centrifugal Pump 18.5 Principles of Operation 18.6 Components and Accessories of Centrifugal Pump 18.7 Centrifugal Pump Classification 18.8 Volute Pump 18.9 Diffuser or Turbine Pump 18.10 Vertical Turbine Pumps 18.11 Construction of Vertical Turbine Pump 18.12 Submersible Pumps 18.13 Electric Motor 18.14 Types of Electric Motors References 221 Index 225